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Cognition Testing for MS: Know These 4 Benefits

Updated on January 18, 2023
Medically reviewed by
Evelyn O. Berman, M.D.
Article written by
Alison Channon

Problems with cognition and cognitive decline are common among people with multiple sclerosis (MS). An estimated 40 percent to 65 percent of people with MS experience cognitive symptoms.

Problems with cognition can include difficulties with working memory (the information you hold in your mind at a given time) or episodic memory (remembering specific events from the past), as well as attention and the ability to think and reason.

Cognitive impairments can be a frustrating aspect of life with MS. Changes to your cognition can affect personal relationships, work, and the ability to perform daily tasks.

Proactive steps recommended by the National Multiple Sclerosis Society can help you manage MS-related cognitive deficits and their impact on your quality of life. Cognition testing can be an early step to supporting your cognitive function.

Cognition Testing Explained

Cognition testing is used to understand a person’s cognitive capabilities. Cognition tests for multiple sclerosis fall under the umbrella of neuropsychological testing and are designed to:

  • Detect brain dysfunction across multiple cognitive areas
  • Improve understanding of the changes happening in the brain
  • Assist in recommendations for treatment planning

Neuropsychological tests can be used for a diverse range of neurological conditions. A neuropsychological test is not the same as a mental health evaluation, although some tests may include a section aimed at assessing mood disorders such as depression.

Several types of tests have been developed to evaluate cognition in people with MS. You may receive short screening tests in the doctor’s office or a more formal assessment supervised by a neuropsychologist.

You might also hear your doctor refer to cognition testing as “testing batteries” or “batteries of tests” — this simply means taking several tests that assess different areas of cognitive function in people with MS.

Cognition testing can help you and your doctor understand the challenges you’re experiencing and identify opportunities to support you.

Benefits of Cognition Testing for MS

Cognition testing has many benefits for individuals with multiple sclerosis, including informing your treatment plan and monitoring symptoms of MS over time. Following are some of the things cognition testing can do.

1. Establish a Baseline of Cognitive Function

A baseline allows your health care provider to understand how your cognition changes over time. The National Multiple Sclerosis Society recommends that adults with MS undergo annual cognition testing to monitor disease progression, identify cognition changes, and see how well treatments are working.

2. Determine Potential Interventions

Cognition testing can help determine the areas of cognition where you have the most challenges. This allows your provider to recommend the best interventions to help strengthen your cognitive function. Additionally, understanding your cognition can help you and your health care provider evaluate and tailor your treatment plan to your needs.

3. Narrow Down the Cause of Cognitive Challenges

A comprehensive evaluation can help determine if depression, anxiety, fatigue, other health problems, or medication side effects are affecting cognition.

4. Meet Requirements for Government Disability Programs

A thorough evaluation from a particular type of provider (such as a neuropsychologist or neurologist) may be necessary to qualify for government disability programs.

Having more information about your cognition helps you and your doctor choose interventions, exercises, and other strategies that can support cognitive function.

What To Expect From Cognition Testing

As you consider cognitive evaluation, it’s helpful to know what to expect. You can’t study for a cognition test, but you can prepare by getting a good night’s sleep and avoiding alcohol 24 hours before the test.

The time it takes to complete a cognition test can vary. Some tests can be done in a few minutes, while others may take several hours.

Comprehensive neuropsychological tests often include physical assessments. Longer testing times and physical activities can cause some people to feel tired afterward. Ask your provider how long testing will last.

You may be given a tablet such as an iPad or a paper form to take a test on your own — sometimes during a regular medical appointment or even while waiting to be seen. In other cases, your doctor may ask you questions verbally. Some testing batteries combine cognitive and physical assessments.

Types of Cognition Tests for MS

There are several types of cognitive screening. Your doctor will help determine which tests are best for you. Below are examples of commonly used cognition tests.

Symbol Digit Modalities Test

Introduced in 1982, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) is one of the most widely used rapid cognition tests for adults with MS. A person with MS is shown a key that pairs numbers with symbols and is then given 90 seconds to match the symbols and numbers. The entire test can be completed in five minutes or less. The SDMT can be performed verbally or in writing.

This test is often used as a front-line assessment before someone with MS is referred to other forms of cognition testing or to other professionals who can work with cognitive problems. Also, the SDMT helps assess cognitive changes during MS relapses.

Processing Speed Test

The Processing Speed Test (PST) takes two minutes to complete, plus a few minutes for explanation. This test is similar to the SDMT, but it is self-administered on a tablet in your provider’s office. In one single-center study, there was some evidence that the PST was slightly more sensitive than the SDMT to certain brain lesions.

Computerized Speed Cognitive Test

The Computerized Speed Cognitive Test (CSCT), which takes five minutes to finish, is a verbal assessment rather than a written or tablet test. The CSCT is particularly good for identifying information-processing impairment.

Multiple Sclerosis Neuropsychological Questionnaire

The Multiple Sclerosis Neuropsychological Questionnaire (MSNQ) takes five minutes. This self-reported survey about cognitive function can be filled out by either a person with MS or someone with whom they interact regularly. The MSNQ can help identify symptoms of depression and assess a person’s level of awareness about their own cognitive abilities.

Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite

The Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) includes one cognitive test, a timed walking test, and a test of arm function. This test can be performed by a trained professional and does not require a physician or neuropsychologist. The National Multiple Sclerosis Society’s Clinical Assessment Task Force developed the MSFC for use in clinical trials.

Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis

The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS) includes the SDMT and other tests to evaluate language ability and spatial recall. The BICAMS requires 15 minutes to complete.

Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in Multiple Sclerosis

The Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in Multiple Sclerosis (MACFIMS) is a comprehensive evaluation that can last 90 minutes. It includes the SDMT, as well as a battery of tests that evaluate language ability, working and spatial memory, and executive function — known as “cognitive domains.” The MACFIMS is unique in its ability to also assess executive function. This exam is administered by or under the supervision of a neuropsychologist.

Taking the First Step

Cognition testing is the first step. Based on the results, your doctor may recommend further evaluations and follow-ups with other health care providers. Other interventions may be prescribed to improve your cognitive performance, such as:

  • Physical exercise
  • Cognitive rehabilitation
  • Brain exercises
  • Diet
  • Disease-modifying therapies

Building a Community

MyMSTeam is the social network for people with multiple sclerosis and their loved ones. On MyMSTeam, more than 195,000 members come together to ask questions, give advice, and share their stories with others who understand life with multiple sclerosis.

Have you talked with your doctor about cognition testing? Have you taken any of these tests? Share your experience in the comments below, or start a conversation by posting in Activities.

References
  1. Cognitive Impairment in Early Stages of Multiple Sclerosis — Neurological Sciences
  2. Managing Cognitive Problems in MS — National Multiple Sclerosis Society
  3. Recommendations for Cognitive Screening and Management in Multiple Sclerosis Care — Multiple Sclerosis Journal
  4. Neuropsychological Assessment: Past and Future — Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
  5. Neuropsychological Evaluation FAQ — UNC School of Medicine
  6. Cognitive Function in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis: Impairment and Treatment — International Journal of MS Care
  7. The Multiple Sclerosis Performance Test (MSPT): An iPad-Based Disability Assessment Tool — Journal of Visualized Experiments
  8. Processing Speed Test: Validation of a Self-Administered, iPad-Based Tool for Screening Cognitive Dysfunction in a Clinic Setting — Multiple Sclerosis Journal
  9. Computerized Neuropsychological Assessment Devices in Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review — Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
  10. Validity of the Symbol Digit Modalities Test as a Cognition Performance Outcome Measure for Multiple Sclerosis — Multiple Sclerosis Journal
  11. Estimating Everyday Neuropsychological Functioning in Multiple Sclerosis: Reliability and Validity of the Greek Multiple Sclerosis Neuropsychological Questionnaire — Multiple Sclerosis International
  12. Use of the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite as an Outcome Measure in a Phase 3 Clinical Trial — Archives of Neurology
  13. Cognition During and After Multiple Sclerosis Relapse as Assessed With the Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis — Scientific Reports
    All updates must be accompanied by text or a picture.
    Evelyn O. Berman, M.D. is a neurology and pediatric specialist and treats disorders of the brain in children. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Learn more about her here.
    Alison Channon has nearly a decade of experience writing about chronic health conditions, mental health, and women's health. Learn more about her here.

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